Ionogram at Wakkanai, Japan
The ionogram is recorded tracings of high-frequency (HF) radio pulses reflected in the ionosphere. It is produced by the vertical incidence ionospheric sounder (ionosonde) at Wakkanai, Hokkaido, Japan. The sounding frequency is swept from 1 to 30 MHz. The height is calculated from the traveling time of the sounding radio wave and the light velocity, i.e., virtual height. Echo traces are composed of ordinary and extraordinary mode by the effect of the Earth's magnetic field and polarizations of the sounding wave. Ionograms are obtained at regular intervals of 15 min and contain several important factors such as the ordinary mode critical frequencies or maximum reflection frequencies of (foE, foF1, foF2) and the minimum virtual heights (h'E, h'F1, h'F2) corresponding to the E (90-120 km) and F (>120 km) layers of the ionosphere. Occasionally, sporadic E layers at a nearly constant height are observed in the E region. Time is Japanese Standard Time (JST), which is UTC+9 hours.
|Citation:||World Data Center for Inosphere and Spaceweather, Ionogram at Wakkanai, Japan, doi:10.17594/5704b5259137a|
|Temporal resolution:||15 minutes|
|Stop date:||15 minutes, before Present|
|(Note:||Latitudes and longitudes are expressed in decimal degrees. Eastern longitudes and Northern latitudes are positive.)|
|Citation & Contact Information|
|Acknowledgements:||If you plan to publish a paper and/or have a presentation using our data, please contact us before submission. We would like to discuss about joint authorship or acknowledgement.|
|Contact Persons:||Mamoru Ishii|
Digital Object Identifier
|How to Cite Datasets:||http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/cite-datasets
Ball, A. and M. Duke , How to cite datasets and link to publications, DCC How-to Guides, Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre.